Friday, July 17, 2015

Network Centric Warfare

Information Age Warfare

Network Centric Warfare (NCW) utilizes artificial intelligence and quantum networking to help coordinate three domains in a battlespace: physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain. For optimized information and decision superiority.
Starting with a series of premises on how the environment is sense, UIAW [Understanding Information Age Warfare] posits a structure of three domains. The physical domain is where events take place and are perceived by sensors and individuals. Data emerging from the physical domain is transmitted through an information domain.

Data is subsequently received and processed by a cognitive domain where it is assessed and acted upon. The process replicates the observe, orient, decide, act loop first described by Col. John Boyd of USAF (Osinga, 2006).1

Decreasing OODA Cycle Time

Each military unit type has an Observe, Orient, Decide, Act cycle time (OODA) which is coordinated with other unit types. The more organized a battlespace is, the shorter the cycle time. By integrating A.I. and quantum computer networking, the U.S. military hopes to shorten the OODA cycle even more—to increase lethality and extend survivability.
...a concept for command and control in which each unit at the different levels of organization, from simple to complex, has its own OODA [Observe, Orient, Decide, Act] time cycle. The cycle time increases commensurate with an increase in the level of organization, as one tries to control more levels and issues. As the number of events increase, the longer it takes to observe, orient, decide and act.2

Fluid, Self-Synchronizing Military Forces

Artificial intelligence and quantum networked effects make fluid, self-synchronizing military forces possible.
Information Age warfighting concepts suggest that fluid, self-synchronizing military forces will be the norm, at least at the tactical level. It has been proposed that the primary source of advantage in these self-synchronizing forces arises from networked effects that can be summoned for use in the manner of advantage chosen by clever commanders based on evolving conditions.3

NIPRNET, SIPRNET & JWICS

In 1995, MILNET split into three separated networks: NIPRNET, SIPRNET & JWICS. The N in NIPRNET stands for data designated nonclassified. The S in SIPRNET stands for secret data. And JWICS is for top secret data.
The DOD also made changes in 1995, retiring MILNET and replacing it with the Non-Classified Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET), the Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET), and the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS), a process that actually began in 1994. NIPRNET, like the original MILNET, was designed to allow for the transmission of unclassified but sensitive information between users. NIPRNET also allowed users to access the civilian Internet and served as an air-gapped analogue to SIPRNET. SIPRNET and JWICS were established by the DOD to transmit classified or secret information. In essence, SIPRNET and JCWIS are the secret, classified versions of the Internet and have become the core of current warfare command and control capabilities.4

Global Information Grid

The Global Information Grid is being implemented to support the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Global Information Grid (GIG), initiated in 1999, is designed to integrate all American defense information systems into a network-centric operation that will provide processing, storage, management, and transport of information to support all Department of Defense (DoD), national security, and related intelligence community functions in conditions of war, crisis, or peace. GIG capabilities will be available from all operating locations (fixed or mobile) and will interface with allied nations as well as non-GIG systems. The system will cost at least $21 billion to implement through 2010 and may take another decade and more billions beyond that to fully develop.

The GIG grew out of DoD's search in the 1980s and 1990s for a truly integrated system of communications that would provide information assurance, interoperability of systems, and information sharing across all of its functions. It is much like the Internet in concept, but with less dependence on ground-based and fixed systems and equipment. It will require a new series of transitional military communications satellites that can carry larger volumes of data (the first to be launched in 2011), the new interoperable Joint Tactical Radio System (which will be fielded in 2077), state-of-the-art optical networking systems, new modes of signal security (being developed by the National Security Agency, and improved network centric systems across the board.

One element of the larger program, the GIG Bandwidth Extension (GIG-BE), has been designed to provide a secure, robust, optical terrestrial network that delivers very-high-speed classified and unclassified Internet protocol services to key operating locations worldwide (nearly ninety key defense and intelligence sites in the United States as well as in Europe and the Pacific). Each site has 10gbs of useable dedicated bandwidth. Put another way, GIG-BE was intended to remove bandwidth constraints from military users, limitations that have often proven lethal in the past. After initial procurement purchases in 2003 and a six-site pilot program conducted in 2004, GIG-BE was fully implemented by 20 December 2005.5

  1. Strickland, Jeffrey. Using Math to Defeat the Enemy: Combat Modeling for Simulation. 2011. Raleigh, NC: Lulu. Print. p.63
  2. Osinga, Frans P.B. Science, Strategy and War: The Strategic Theory of John Boyd. 2007. London, UK: Routledge. Print. p.155
  3. Cares, Jeff. Distributed Networked Operations: The Foundations of Network Centric Warfare. 2006. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. Print. pp.54,55
  4. Axelrod, Evan M. Violence Goes to the Internet: Avoiding the Snare of the Net. 2009. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Print. p.10 (emph. added)
  5. Sterling, Christopher H. Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century. 2008. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio. Print. p.192

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